Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been getting a lot of attention from industry players, investors, and businesses alike due to its ability to equip machines with intelligence, allowing industries to deploy automation, Big Data Analytics (BDA), and robotics applications across the entire value chain.
According to Frost & Sullivan, the global AI market could contribute up to $15.7 trillion to the global economy by 2030. This statistic demonstrates the importance and impact of AI technologies globally.
As AI continues to merge with our lives, it is time to take this opportunity to get to know some interesting facts about AI!
1. AI is more than just an “intelligence provider”
As simple as it may sound, AI actually has a myriad of focus areas such as Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and Deep Inference. These focus areas help AI developers and researchers to build various AI-powered machines suited for various tasks and applications.
For example, Nvidia Corporation (Nvidia) uses an AI-powered technology called Deep Learning Super Sampling (DLSS) – an image upscaling technology which uses deep learning to enhance image quality in video games.
2. The basis of AI emerged in 1942
Arguably, the very first idea of AI came around in 1942 though Isaac Asimov, a famous science fiction writer and biochemist professor.
Asimov’s short science fiction-based story called “Runaround”, was one of the first published works which made the world think about the convergence of intelligence, machines, and humankind through the Three Laws of Robotics:
A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws.
The Three Laws of Robotics has become the basis for AI development ever since.
3. The Imitation Game
Picture source: www.quora.com
“Can machines think?” – this question by Alan Turing made him design the imitation game (which was later called – Turing Test), a test created in 1950 to assess the intelligence level of artificial neural networks. This test allows evaluators to judge and measure a machine’s ability to respond to questions.
The catch here is, the results of the test is not dependent on the machine's ability to give correct answers to questions, but how closely its answers resemble those a human would give.
4. The birth of the term ‘Artificial Intelligence’
The term ‘Artificial Intelligence’ was coined in the year 1956 by John McCarthy – one of the founders of the AI discipline. The term was coined during a conference held at Darthmouth College and AI has now evolved to become a dedicated industry and a field of research.
5. Human vs Machine
Picture source: www.pri.org
One of the most memorable moments in AI history came in 1997 during the live chess match between IBM’s Deep Blue computer and Garry Kasparov, the reigning world chess champion at that time. The competition consisted six matches out of which two games was won by Deep Blue while Kasparov won only one. The remaining three games ended in a draw – enabling the computer to achieve victory.
Deep blue utilised Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Intelligence (GOFAI), allowing the machine to equip a brute-force search approach – the computer processed almost 200 million options per second.
6. The first neural network
Picture source: ronkowitz.blogspot.com
In 1957, Frank Rosenblatt, an American psychologist in the field of AI developed what was called “Perceptron Algorithm”. This algorithm changed the landscape of AI forever, making it possible for developers and researchers to manage and train AI.
The algorithm was demonstrated using the Mark 1 Perceptron – an electronic device built by Rosenblatt in accordance with biological principles and showed an ability to learn. The Mark 1 formed the basis of neural networks and was an enabler to subsequent representatives of modern deep neural networks.
7. AI becomes a doctor
The utilisation of AI in the medical field has led to effective implementation of digital technologies in healthcare. The healthcare industry has seen the integration of machine learning, deep learning, real-time data analysing and various other AI solutions to diagnose various diseases.
One example can be seen in Zebra Medical Vision’s Imaging Analytics Engine which uncovers brain, lung, liver, cardiovascular and bone disease in CT scans , 40 different conditions in X-rays scans, and breast cancer in 2D mammograms using AI-driven algorithms and databases.
The AI has been effective to the extend it received a doctor’s license and abides by the Hippocratic oath.
8. AI-directed film
In 2018, an AI which goes by the name Benjamin, created a movie called “Zone Out” which featured actor Thomas Middleditch. The movie was created from scratch by the AI within a span of 48 hours – the storytelling, editing, music selections, and all other elements were managed and decided 100% by Benjamin. The whole project was the idea of Oscar Sharp, a film director and Ross Goodwin, a creative technologist at Google.
Benjamin is a long short-term memory recurrent neural network. This application of AI is commonly found in our smartphones to predict what word we will type next.
9. AI is smarter than humans
AI developed by Alibaba and Microsoft managed to gain better results than humans in a reading comprehension test – based on Stanford University's SQuAD test, a reading comprehension dataset consisting of questions based on a set of Wikipedia articles.
Alibaba’s AI model recorded a score of 82.44 while Microsoft’s counterpart managed to achieve 82.65. The human counterpart on the other hand, only managed to record 82.304.
10. AI can have citizenship
Sophia, one of the most advanced humanoid robots has been given a citizenship by Saudi Arabia in 2017 – marking the first ever robot to receive such an accomplishment. In the same year, Sophia was also named the United Nations Development Programme's first ever Innovation Champion and is the first non-human to be given any United Nation (UN) title.
The AI that powers Sophia is very complex which allows it to converse with humans, maintain eye contact, and emulate facial expressions amongst many other features.
The unexpected emergence of COVID-19 has further accelerated the implementation of AI technologies, thanks to its ability to make informed decisions and most importantly, its ability to learn from data, just like us.